All About the Quinceañera Birthday Celebration in Latin America
The quinceañera tradition is one of the oldest and most popular traditions in Latin America.
This unique tradition is also known as:
- los quince años – fifteen years
- los quinces – the fifteen
- la fiesta de quince años – the fifteen year party
The birthday girl is la quinceañera (the one who is fifteen). Keep reading to learn about this magical celebration!
Origins of the Quinceañera Tradition
The quinceañera tradition is one of the oldest birthday traditions in Latin America. It’s a case of sincretismo religioso (religious syncretism)—a combination of Mayan cosmovision and Christian beliefs.
For the native peoples of Latin America, like the Mayas and Aztecs, life expectancy was around 30 years. Fifteen-year-olds were in their prime of life. They would marry and start families at that age.
Young girls were sent away to learn about history and cultural traditions as a way to prepare them for married life. Then they went back to their communities to celebrate their fifteenth birthday.
During colonization, those ancient traditions mixed with Christian beliefs. The misa (mass) was added to the celebration. The quince años became a social event, a way for the families to “present the quinceañera to society” and announce that the girl was of marrying age.
In the 19th century, Mexican emperors Maximiliano and Carlota introduced the vals and dresses to the celebration. To this day, they’re still a fundamental part of the tradition.
Today, the quinceañera tradition is a celebration of life. It’s a way of marking a girl’s transition from being a child to be a señorita (young woman). For most girls in Latin America is a way to celebrate their femininity, their life, and the opportunities they will have in the future.
The Quinceañera Tradition
There’s no right or wrong way to celebrate the quinceañera tradition. Some people throw huge parties, while others prefer something smaller with family and close friends. In other instances, quinceañeras prefer traveling or saving that money.
Nevertheless, today we’re going to learn about the “traditional” way to celebrate a quince años.
Mass or Religious Service (La Misa o el servicio religioso)
Since the quinceañera tradition has Catholic roots, it is customary for religious and spiritual families to organize un servicio religioso (religious service) or una misa (mass).
Some churches require that the girl has been baptized, received first communion, and been confirmed. Some denominations offer courses to prepare the quinceañera for her life as a señorita (young woman).
During this part of the celebration, a father, pastor, or minister gives a speech to pray for the wellness of the quinceañera and give her advice for this new phase of her life.
Party or Reception (La fiesta o la recepción)
The quinceañera tradition is usually a formal event. You have to dress to the nines for it, so don your best dress or suit for the party!
At the door, the parents and siblings of the birthday girl welcome the guests. You congratulate them on the 15 years of their daughter and sister. While you wait for the quinceañera to appear, mingle, eat boquitas (snacks), and have a drink.
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Vals Time (Tiempo de Vals)
Suddenly, you hear a commotion outside. It’s the quinceañera! She looks lovely in her princess-style dress! You know, long, puffy dresses with intricate seams and designs, usually in a pastel shade.
When the quinceañera gets to the party, 14 damas (ladies) and 15 chambelanes (chamberlains) accompany her. They go to the dance floor for the vals, the quince años traditional dance.
The music began with the notes of Tiempo de Vals by Chayanne, one of several traditional quinceañera songs. The quinceañera dances with her dad (or another father figure). Then, she dances with all the men in their family and any others who ask to dance with her.
Some families hire a DJ and the quinceañera requests her favorite music so people can dance all night. Classic dances like la Macarena, el Meneito, or Caballito de Palo are easy to learn and fun to dance along to with other guests.
Various customs are part of the quinceañera tradition. In la ceremonia de las 15 velas (the 15-candle ceremony), 15 of the closest people to the birthday girl hold a candle, light it up, and make a wish for the quinceañera on her big day.
Another tradition is to change the quinceañera’s footwear. She arrives to the party in sneakers or flats, and then her mother or father changes them to short heels.
There is another ceremony where the parents give the girl her first jewelry set, or her first make-up set as a way to show her they see her as a señorita now. Some families make a brief video of the life of the agasajada (honored).
Food (La comida)
Many families prefer to serve comida típica (typical foods) like tamales, tacos, soups, or stews, depending on the quinceañera and her family’s preferences and budget.
It’s common for there to be an adult menu with all the fancy food and a kids menu with foods like pizza, burgers, or hotdogs.
In recent years, candy bars and chocolate fountains have become more popular, making them a must-have at quinces.
Gifts (Los regalos)
Just like at any birthday occasion, gifts are always welcome at a quinceañera! But what are some traditional quinceañera gifts?
Money is a great gift because it is a way to give the quinceañera the freedom of buying whatever she wants. Jewelry, makeup, perfumes, and creams are other ideas. Some quinceañeras like books, clothes, and video games.
The Cake (El pastel)
It’s part of the quinceañera tradition to cut the cake in the middle of the night! You sing the happy birthday song, and then the waiters bring you a piece of cake. It’s a moment to rest from all the dancing and partying.
After the cake, most people begin to say goodbyes, ask the quinceañera for some pictures, or keep dancing the night away.
Learn How to Congratulate the Quinceañera in Spanish
Do you know that in the United States approximately 53 million people speak Spanish? The U.S. is the second-largest Spanish-speaking country in the world and according to CNN, there are 41 million native Spanish speakers in the US who speak Spanish in their homes.
This means that there could be a great probability of being invited to a quinceañera traditional birthday. Learn Spanish to congratulate her in this beautiful language! Also, if you are planning on traveling to Latin America in the future, Spanish is your best bet for communication! Spanish speakers greatly appreciate it when foreigners learn to communicate in Spanish. Interactions are more organic and enjoyable without the language barrier.
Sign up today for a free trial class with our friendly, certified, native-speaking teachers at Homeschool Spanish Academy and have a conversation about the quinceañera tradition!
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